Is your country party to any bilateral or multilateral treaties for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments? What is the country’s approach to entering into these treaties and what, if any, amendments or reservations has your country made to such treaties?
Except for the multilateral treaties on family law, Turkey is not a signatory to multilateral treaties for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. However, Turkey...»
Turkish Commercial Code No. 6102 (TCC), which entered into force on July 1, 2012, brought many novelties to form a modern vision of commercial law, whereas the former rules were inadequate to meet the needs of the practice. The focus was mainly on transparency, auditability, and equivalence among shareholders, and the relevant legislation has adopted new principles with respect to corporate governance and shareholders’ rights.
As part of these novelties, the TCC provides cate...»
1. Is your country party to any bilateral or multilateral treaties for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments? What is the country’s approach to entering into these treaties, and what, if any, amendments or reservations has your country made to such treaties?
Except for multilateral treaties on family law, Turkey is not a signatory to multilateral treaties for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. Howev...»
Although parties to international transactions frequently agree to arbitrate, they sometimes reconsider that commitment when a dispute arises, and look to challenge the validity of the arbitration agreement. Thanks to the separability presumption, the courts and the tribunals insulate the arbitration agreements from attacks on the underlying contract and uphold arbitration. However, the separability presumption sometimes backfires; particularly if one is attempting to arbitra...»
Sources of law
1. What are the main areas of law and regulation relating to product liability?
Turkish law does not have specific legislation for product liability. Product liability claims are based mainly on tort law and contract law provisions under the Code of Obligations 6098.
In addition, consumers can base product liability claims on the Consumer Protection Law 6502, enacted in light of EU directives, including:
Directive 2002/65/EC concerning distance marketing of co...»
The justification of court decisions is regarded as a fundamental right and a key element of the right to a fair trial (ie, the right to a reasoned decision). This right is protected by Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights, the Turkish Constitution, the Code of Civil Procedure and Supreme Court precedents.
The Constitution and the Code of Civil Procedure set out general rules regarding the justification of decisions.
Article 141 of the Constitution...»
When the new Code of Civil Procedure (CCP) was enacted in 2011, it introduced a new case type to Turkish litigation where plaintiffs file an action for receivables for an unquantified amount that is left to the courts to determine subject to dispute. When filing such actions, plaintiffs:
state the amount of determinable receivables as the minimum amount subject to dispute;
pay a case fee based on this amount; and
extend their claim to the amount calculated by th...»
Article 398 of the Code of Civil Procedure previously set out that parties which failed to comply with an interim injunction or that violated an injunction would face one to six months’ imprisonment.
However, following an application to the Istanbul First Intellectual and Industrial Property Court for the annulment of Article 398, the Constitutional Court decided to cancel the first sentence of Article 398(1) regarding imprisonment for opposition to interim injunctions.(1)
It was regulated in Article 398 of the Code of Civil Procedure that persons who do not comply with the order for enforcement of interim injunctions or who violate the decision of the injunction shall be punished with disciplinary imprisonment of one month to six months.
As a result of the application made to Court by the Istanbul 1st Intellectual and Industrial Property Court for the annulment of the mentioned article, the Constitutional Court, in its decision with the merit ...»
In order to improve time and cost efficiency, in recent years the Turkish legislature has created legal initiatives to encourage private parties to settle through compromise rather than litigation. In this regard, mandatory mediation for commercial receivables has been recently introduced via the Law on Legal Procedures to Initiate Proceedings for Monetary Receivables arising out of Subscription Agreements (Law 7155) with new articles being added to the Commercia...»
The Public Policy Exception as an Unruly Horse
There is an ongoing quest for a uniform application of the New York Convention. However, the interpretation of the exceptions to enforcement still varies. Albeit applying the same provisions, national courts continue to adopt different approaches to the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards. This is particularly true where the public policy exception is raised under Art. V(2)(b).
Considerable debate exists as to what the public ...»
Use of arbitration and recent trends
1. How is commercial arbitration used and what are the recent trends?
Use of commercial arbitration and recent trends
Although arbitration is still underused in Turkey when compared to litigation, an upward trend in the use of commercial arbitration has been observed after Istanbul Arbitration Centre (ISTAC) started its operation in October 2015. The statistics show that the ISTAC received 6% of the total number of applications for arbitra...»